Learning and Intelligence

The history and presence of the world reveals itself through patterns. Patterns are predictable events that are repeated, making them both memorable and easy to recognize; i.e. the seasons, days of the week, traffic patterns, the cracks in a sidewalk, rows of corn, etc. Patterns are observed in all things, from the smallest particle of […]

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Knowledge and Information

The desire to share KNOWLEDGE and information is clearly innate. The production and dissemination of new forms of knowledge is highly useful for society and individuals in problem solving, and its various forms are widespread across different cultures. Humans share a strong desire to understand the unknown. The search for understanding is a uniquely human […]

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Society and Culture

A SOCIETY is a group of people who live in close proximity, such as a hunter-gatherer tribe, village, neighborhood, town, or city, or who share a common interest. Society is people, including the way we behave toward others. People are social animals. We like to form close relationships with those around us. At the same […]

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Language and Syntax

Like other animals, we learn about the world by observing, by doing, by communicating, and by imitating others. But unlike other animals, we are able to talk at a young age. We all learn to speak a LANGUAGE that has a set of innate rules, or grammar. And we do this without having to be […]

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Memory and Consciousness

A human brain is the most complex system that we know. It contains about 100 billion neurons. It’s nerve fibers alone, if flattened out, could circle the Earth four times. Our brains are bilateral, highly redundant, flexible systems that count, compare, think, reflect, plan, predict, and dream, to name only a few of its thousands […]

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Love and Emotion

If life is chemistry, then LOVE and EMOTION is also chemistry. We know that different emotions are triggered by specific chemical reactions that occur in the brain, although we certainly don’t experience love as a bundle of brain circuits firing away in our head. Instead, we experience or ‘feel’ the attractiveness, the warmth, the kindness, […]

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Sex and Reproduction

All life is chemistry, including the fascinating drama of sex and reproduction. Consider the question: which came first, the chicken or the egg? This is the kind of puzzle that anyone can easily entertain. It has an aspect of humor. Yet when examined closely, we see it has the possibility of revealing something inherent about […]

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Life and Death

Humans are the only animals that study other creatures, and themselves. Medical doctors, psychologists, and social scientists are able to observe and describe the insides of our brains, our states of mind including our emotions, our memories, our physical bodies, our families, our neighborhoods and communities, our societies and cultures. There are questions about LIFE […]

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Evolution and Change

There are many biologists, zoologists, botanists and other life-scientists who study every aspect of our living environment, including all known microorganisms, fungi, animals, and plants, and their surroundings. Scientists also observe human behavior; what causes us to be the way we are, and to do the things we do. Since the beginning of life on […]

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Light and Sound

Light and sound are waves. All waves travel outward from the source that creates them, and all waves vibrate. A vibration is simply a back and forth motion around a position of equilibrium. Light waves vibrate from side to side as they travel along a directional path. Normal sound waves in air vibrate from front […]

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